The United States of America (US) has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
The US used cluster munitions in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam (1960s and 1970s); Grenada and Lebanon (1983); Libya (1986); Iran (1988); Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia (1991); Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995); Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo (1999); Afghanistan (2001 and 2002); and Iraq (2003).
The Republic of Italy signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, ratified on 21 September 2011, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 March 2012.
The Wide Area Antipersonnel Mine (WAAPM) BLU-42, is an air-delivered antipersonnel mine, an adaptation of the ‘guava’ bomblet; it is a spherical metallic object with external flanges and a fuze similar to that of the ‘guava’.
North Vietnamese called “Guava” (another tropical fruit, similar to an apple) a model of cluster bomb much more lethal than the “Pineapple: the BLU 26.
The BLU 3 is a cylindrical high explosive bomblet with 255 steel balls embedded in an aluminium case.
The first aerial bombing in History.
1st november 1911(Italo-Turkish War): Giulio Gavotti flew his early model Etrich Taube monoplane against Ottoman military in Libya
Giulio Douhet (Caserta 1869). Italian army officer. His book “The command of the air” (1921) set the stage for aerial warfare.
A poster in a school of Ban Khai village, Xieng Khouang province, Laos.
After 40 years since the end of the war, many kinds of cluster submunitions are still scattered everywhere on a good part of Laos territory: each with its shape, features and effects.
The Remnants, 2nd mission to Laos, may 2015: filming the Uxo Lao teams work.
Hundreds of B 52’s bomb craters still dotting the land in Xieng Khouang.
The Xieng Khouang from the bomber perspective – many craters still visible